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Fleeing an arrest warrant for his role in this on May 9, Wagner goes first to Liszt in Wiemar, then lives in exile outside Germany for 11 years, mainly in Zurich. Liszt helps Raff secure a job with the publisher Shuberth in Hamburg, working on arrangements of music of others. Raff's long hours of work leave him little time to compose while in Hamburg. Bourgeois prosperity eventually damps down the revolutionary tendencies in Europe. Many German patriots flee to America, where they are called "the 48'ers".

The bloody Hungarian revolution comes to an end as rebels are defeated and the prime minister and 13 generals are executed in October; this event inspires year-old Liszt to compose his Funerailles [a word with the literal meaning 'funeral ceremonies' and the figurative meaning 'death and destruction'], a new type of work for piano which he calls a 'tone-poem'. During the same month, on October 17 in Paris, Chopin dies of pulmonary tuberculosis at age He was a close friend of Liszt, and this is probably another part of the inspiration for Funerailles.

Halevy's intention is to revive the ancient Greek "enharmonic genus" , using quarter-tones between B:C and E:F, following the Romanization of the note-names in the enharmonic version of the Greek "Greater Perfect System". One of several composers being published under the pseudonym of G. Marks, year-old Brahms earns some money by doing hack-work, composing little salon pieces.

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In November, Liszt again invites year-old Joachim Raff to Weimar, this time formally offering him a job. Raff accepts and becomes Liszt's copyist and secretary, staying until Raff still lives in abject poverty, eventually claiming to have composed parts of several Liszt pieces -- modern scholarship casts doubt upon these claims, but Raff does indeed do a tremendous amount of work for Liszt, playing an important role at a crucial moment in Liszt's career.

In March, the Schumanns visit Hamburg to perform, and Brahms, 17, sends Schumann a package containing several compositions. When the package is returned unopened, Brahms understandably holds resentment for Schumann.

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Vienna and its suburbs in Note the small city in the center, still surrounded by fortifications, which a few years later will be torn down and converted into the Ringstrasse, and the ring of suburbs lying outside the walls. He is also deeply involved in his huge Der Ring des Nibelungen project, writing the prose draft for Wieland der Schmied in March and the sketch and then the poem for Der junge Siegfried ['the young Siegfried'] during May and June.

His training and temperament cause Brahms to value the past musical achievements of Bach, Mozart, and especially Beethoven, more highly than those composers holding to the 'New German School' ideology chiefly, Liszt and Wagner.


Liszt projects for this year: completes the first revision of his 2nd symphonic-poem Tasso: lamento e trionfo ; composes his 6th symphonic-poem Mazeppa , S. Both of these will be orchestrated by Raff, and revised by The Vienna Conservatory reopens after having shut down in as a result of the revolution. Metternich returns to Austria, and altho he will never hold another official office, he does become a close personal advisor to Emperor Franz Josef. In America, 7 years after the first public demonstration of the telegraph, there are 50 telegraph companies operating hundreds of offices, mostly located at railway stations.

Probably feeling inspired by the patriotic fervor of the Revolution a few years before, year-old Liszt composes the 1st thru 15th Hungarian Rhapsodies , which are based not on Magyar folk music, but on urban popular music of Hungary, whose cultural basis is Roma [gypsy]. During the end of this year and the beginning of the next, year-old Liszt composes his radical and monumental Sonata in B-minor , finishing it on the following February 2.

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This work's main importance lies in Liszt's formal innovation: an attempt to fuse all 4 movements of the traditional sonata design into a 1-movement structure. Liszt is very pleased while sight-reading Brahms's E-flat-minor Scherzo , then plays his own recently-completed Sonata in B-minor. When Liszt looks over to see what his young visitor thinks, he finds Brahms asleep: a premonition of the major split that will occur in 19th-century European music.

Brahms claims that he was simply listening with his eyes closed Schumann is dazzled by Brahms's three piano sonatas, and declares him to be the prophet of the musical future, in classically restrained opposition to the 'New German School' headed by Liszt and Wagner. During one of these readings, on October 10 in Paris, Wagner meets Liszt's year-old daughter Cosima. Wagner begins composing the music of Das Rheingold , the first of the Ring music-dramas, in November. Wagner, in a letter to Liszt, expresses his first ideas about Tristan und Isolde.

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In February, Schumann, 43, is finally overtaken by his mental illness probably bipolar disorder and jumps into the Rhine in a suicide attempt. He is rescued, and has himself committed to an asylum in Endenich, near Bonn, where he will live out the rest of his life. His father is the Director of the Vienna Conservatory. Wagner travels to London to conduct, and then stays in Paris alone.

Rossini returns to Paris, where he remains for the rest of his life. On July 29, Schumann, who has stopped eating, dies in the asylum at age In Hamburg, year-old Brahms begins sketching his 1st Symphony , which will not be completed for another 20 years.

In September, Wagner, now 43, begins composing the music to Siegfried. On December 19 he sets down the first musical sketches for Tristan und Isolde. In Weimar, year-old Liszt composes his Dante Symphony. In April, Wagner and Minna move into "Der Asyl", a cottage in the garden of the his patron Wesendonck's villa in Zurich, where Wagner drafts the first prose sketch for Parsifal. Its design will later be developed by Cros and Edison into the phonograph.

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Wagner becomes entangled into a love affair with Mathilde von Wesendonck, his patron's wife, which inspires him to begin serious composition on Tristan und Isolde. So on August 9, Wagner, now 44, interrupts work on his Der Ring des Nibelungen after completing Act 2 of Siegfried the third of the four music-dramas comprising the project , to begin composing Tristan. From October to December, Wagner composes the Prelude to Tristan , making a bold break with the past by giving the piece a restless harmonic structure full of wandering chord progressions where dissonant chords resolve into further dissonant chords for long periods of time.

Robert Hirschfeld is born in September in Moravia. During the winter, Wagner sets 5 love poems which Mathilde wrote to him, as the Wesendonck Lieder.

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Liszt also composes his 11th symphonic-poem, Hunnenschlacht ['the battle with the Huns'], S. In April, Minna finds one of his letters to Mathilde. Also in August, because of his flagrant affair with Mathilde Wesendonck, Wagner is forced to separate from his wife Minna, and to leave his residence at the Wesendonck's villa; he goes to Venice and writes out the manuscript of the Wesendonck Lieder in October. With conservatives attacking his works and those of his pupils, Liszt resigns his post as Kapellmeister at Weimar.

On August 6, year-old Wagner completes Tristan und Isolde.

He has been running from creditors -- having left Venice for Lucerne and then Zurich -- and his new work expresses his philosophy of finding redemption from the turmoil of life in a quasi-Buddhist nirvana of death and nothingness. These ideas attract the attention of the philosopher Nietzsche. Intended to be published in a music journal with dozens of signatures, it leaks out and gets printed early in a daily newspaper with only four signatures, causing more damage than good to Brahms's reputation. Both his parents are Slovenian, but change their name to "Wolf" and aggressively try to assimilate to the Germanic culture.

His ethnic background is Polish-Jewish. Iglau is a small provincial center of German culture, approximately a 5 hour train ride from Vienna, and until the s had been a center of silver mining. The Mahler houses at Znaimergasse 4 and 6 in Iglau Liszt and Carolyne attempt to marry in Rome but she has not submitted her divorce papers and so they cannot -- but they remain soul mates. Liszt settles in Rome. He will go on to become an influential newspaper critic, and father of a precocious composer. Wagner is then allowed to re-enter Germany, except Saxony, and in November he begins to compose the overture for Die Meistersinger , which shows the influence of Tristan , but at the same time is very different from it.

Sicard von Sicardsburg and E. In Rome, year-old Liszt completes his 10th symphonic-poem Hamlet , S. In Germany, schoolteacher Philip Reis invents a device he calls a "telephone", which can transmit musical tones, but never becomes useful for voice transmission. As a result of the affair, Wagner cannot get Tristan und Isolde staged at the Vienna Opera, and his wife Minna also finally leaves him for good.

Wagner is also granted amnesty from Saxony. He periodically works on the libretto of Die Meistersinger. On September 22, Otto von Bismarck becomes chancellor of Prussia, and immediately begins a policy of uniting Germany as a Kleindeutschland ['little Germany'] under Prussian rule, as opposed to the idea of a Grossdeutschland ['large Germany'] which would include Austria. Later he decides to leave it unnumbered, and today we know it as Symphony No. Helmholtz also has constructed a tone harmonium tuned in just-intonation. Vienna's Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde ['society of friends of music'] awards the 1st Prize to year-old Joachim Raff for his 1st Symphony "To the Fatherland" , op.

Franz Schalk is born in Vienna on May Liszt's mistress Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein is nearly mad, and so year-old Liszt dissolves their relationship and retires to a Dominican monastery.

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