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Social Psychology in Transition

European Journal of Social Psychology. Spatial ability was assessed in wave 2 using a test of spatial rotation Peters and Battista, The mental rotation test requires participants to view two polygons, and judge if they are planar rotations of each other as opposed to its mirror image. Data from the HEARTS cohort will be linked to Swedish national registers containing information on mortality, disease and sociodemographic information as well as life-course information, such as cognitive status and fitness at 18 years of age for men using the Swedish conscription data base.

Our intention is to later integrate the HEARTS cohort into other ongoing Swedish longitudinal studies, creating opportunities to have more measurement points and more extended longitudinal within-person information. A nationally representative population-based sample of 14, individuals between the ages 60 and 66 was recruited in April through the register, Statens personadressregister SPAR in April SPAR includes all persons registered as residents in Sweden and the register is updated each day with data from the Swedish Population Register.

The sample was stratified by age, but no other restrictions were made.

Invitations for participation in the study were sent out to 14, individuals. In addition to general information about the study, the invitation letter also included information on how to take part in the study through a web-based survey, administered through the Qualtrics service web-link, individual study code and password. Non-responders received a first reminder 3 weeks later with the same information on how to answer via the web-based survey.

Three weeks later a second and final reminder was sent out together with a paper-version of the survey in addition to information that the web-link was still valid. The rationale for using a computer-based platform for annual surveys is based on the knowledge of wide internet access and computer use in Sweden, including among older adults Findahl, However, those who prefer a paper-based questionnaire are offered this option throughout the study.

Trans 101: Ep 9 - Social Transition [CC]

Cognitive tests were only included in the web-based survey and represent different aspects of cognitive function. We did not include reaction-time based measures, because different electronic devices and differences in internet connection speed could distort the results. The selected tests could be performed on all devices.

These tests were not intended to be diagnostic, but as indicators of cognitive performance in different domains. The HEARTS study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the regional ethical approval board of the University of Gothenburg with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Ethical approval was granted from the ethical approval board of the University of Gothenburg Dnr: In addition to describing the theoretical rationale and background of the HEARTS study, in the present paper we present some empirical highlights of the two first waves of the study. These include findings concerning a cross-sectional differences in psychological health between individuals with different retirement status working, partially retired or fully retired at baseline, and b changes in psychological health across 1 year for different retirement status groups working both waves, retired both waves, and retiring between waves.

For the analyses presented in the present paper, we selected four variables representing psychological health as outcome variables: stress, depression, quality of life, and autonomy. This scale includes 10 items. Participants reported how often they experienced different feelings in the last week, using a 5-point Likert-type scale. The CASP includes 12 items targeting autonomy, pleasure, control, and self-realization, using a 4 point Likert-type scale. Three items assessed autonomy on a 5-point Likert-type scale.

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SAGE Reference - Role Transitions

In the first step, we conducted descriptive analyses to describe the HEARTS sample at baseline wave 1 and first follow-up wave 2 a year later. For the main analyses, we compared the four retirement groups described in the Measures section in measurements of depression, stress, autonomy and quality of life, using ANOVAs, followed by Games-Howell post hoc tests, in SPSS.

Original Research ARTICLE

Secondly, we compared change between wave 1 and 2 in these variables, between those who were retired in both waves still retired , those who retired between waves retirees , and those who stayed working between waves still working , using repeated-measure ANOVAs. In total 5, persons completed the first wave survey, resulting in a response rate of Among the participants, 4, The cohort consists of slightly more women The majority reported being married or having a partner In terms of education, the cohort is better educated compared to the general population, with the largest group In total, TABLE 2.

In terms of retirement status, the majority of the sample Of the remaining individuals, 7. Of those who reported not being retired, Information on work status was missing for 41 participants. In the first annual follow-up in the second wave measurement , 4, individuals completed the survey again, representing Among those, 3, Also, individuals missing at follow-up reported lower education levels, higher scores on depression and stress, lower life-satisfaction and also scored lower in all cognitive domains verbal, memory, and numeracy at baseline.

The reliability estimates for all measures were over. There were moderately strong positive correlations between stress and depression and between quality of life and autonomy at both wave 1 and 2.


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There were also negative correlations between stress and depression with quality of life and autonomy at both waves. The longitudinal associations found between T1 and T2 were similar to those cross-sectional associations found at T1, albeit slightly weaker. TABLE 3. Baseline differences in psychological health across the four retirement groups are described in Table 4.

Individuals not yet retired and still working reported higher levels of stress compared with fully retired individuals and those still working but considering themselves retirees. Additionally, the non-retired group reported more depressive symptoms compared with all three retired groups. Individuals in the three retired groups reported higher quality of life and autonomy compared to non-retired individuals.

No differences were found at baseline between the three retired groups. TABLE 4. Differences in psychological health across the four retirement status groups at baseline.

Patterns of change and continuity in psychological health over the 1 year period between wave 1 and wave 2 are described in Table 5. Across the three retirement status groups working at both waves, retired at both waves, or retiring between waves there were significant Time effects for all variables. Compared to the baseline, participants at wave 2 generally reported lower stress and depression and higher quality of life and autonomy.

The interactions are illustrated in Figures 2A—D.

Bibliographic Information

The general pattern was similar for all of these interactions i. Participants working at both waves blue lines in figures displayed stability or a marginal increase in quality of life and autonomy, and stability or a marginal decrease in stress and depression. Participants fully retired at both waves green lines in figures also demonstrated a general pattern of stability in these variables. In contrast to the working group, the small change demonstrated in this group was in the opposite direction, showing small decreases in quality of life and autonomy and a small increase in depression.

Participants retiring between waves i.

TABLE 5.